Bibliography for The Bliss Experiment

Chapter 2 — Why We Fail at Being Happy

Brickman, P., Coates, D., Janoff-Bulman, R. (1978). Lottery Winners and Accident Victims: Is Happiness Relative? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1978, Vol. 36, No. 8, p. 917-927

Riis, J, et al. (2005). Ignorance of Hedonic Adaptation to Hemodialysis: A Study Using Ecological Momentary Assessment. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 134, no. 1, 3-9.

Chapter 3 — Money & Luxury

Blanchflower, D., Oswald, A. (2004) Money, sex and happiness: an empirical study. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 106(3), 393–415.

Brockmann, H., Delhey, J., Welzel, C., Hao, Y. (2008). The china puzzle: falling happiness in a rising economy. Journal of Happiness Studies.

Burr, A. Santo, J., Pushkar, D. (2009). Affective Well-Being in Retirement: the influence of values, money, and health across three years. Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 12(1), 17-40.

Cohen, E. (2007) CDC: antidepressants most prescribed drugs in U.S. Retrieved from

Deiner, E. Horowitz, J. & Emmons, R. A. (1985). Happiness of the very wealthy. Social Indicators Research, 16, 263-274.

Delamothe, T. (2005) Get happy—it’s good for you. British Medical Journal, 331:1489-1490.

Easterbrook, Gregg. The Progress Paradox: How Life Gets Better While People Feel Worse. New York: Random House, 2003.

Kahneman D., Krueger A.B., Schkade D., et al. (2006). Would you be happier if you were richer? A focusing illusion. Science, 312, 1908-1910.

Kristof, K.M. (2005, January 14) Study: money can’t buy happiness, security either. Los Angeles Times, C1.

Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends and faith of happy people. American Psychologist, 55, 56-67.

Nickerson, C., Schwarz, N., Diener, E., Kahneman, D. (2003) Zeroing in on the dark side of the American dream: a closer look at the negative consequences of the goal for financial success.Psychological Science, 14(6):531-6.

Norris, I., Larsen, J. (2010) Wanting more than you have and its consequences for well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-010-9232-8.

The Economist Intelligence Unit, (2005) Quality of Life Index. The Economist. Retrieved from

Samuelson, Robert. (2007, July 11) Prosperity Outstrips Happiness. Real Clear Politics. Retrieved from

Chapter 4 — Sex & Romance

Blanchflower, D., Oswald, A. (2004) Money, sex and happiness: an empirical study. Scandinavian Journal of Economics 106(3), 393–415.

Emanuele, E., et al. (2006). Raised plasma nerve growth factor levels associated with early-stage romantic love. Psychoneuroendocrinology31(3), 288-294.

Farley, M., Bindel, J., Golding, J. (2009) Men who buy sex: who they buy and what they know. Report. San Francisco: Prostitution Research & Education.

Grello, C., Welsh, D., Harper, M., (2006) No strings attached: the nature of casual sex in college students, The Journal of Sex Research, Vol. 43, No. 3, pp. 255-267.

Kluger, J. (2008, January 17). The science of romance: why we love. Time. Retrieved from,8816,1704672,00.html

Lucas, Richard E., Andrew E. Clark, Yannis Georgellis, and Ed Diener. (2003) Reexamining adaptation and the set point model of happiness: reactions to changes in marital status. Journal of Personality & Social Psychology 84.3: 527-39.

Roberts, S. (2007, July 1). The shelf life of bliss. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Stevenson, B., & Wolfers, J. (2009). The paradox of declining female happiness. American Economic Journal: Economic Policy1(2), 190-225. doi: 10.1257/pol.1.2.190

The Daily Mail Staff (Ed.). (2008, October 29). Two years, six months and 25 days: The length of time it takes before romance is dead. Daily Mail Online. Retrieved from

Wilcox, W., ed. (2010). The State of Our Unions. Report. Charlottesville: National Marriage Project.

Zenter, M. (2005). Ideal mate personality concepts and compatibility in close relationships: A longitudinal analysis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology89(2), 242-256.

Chapter 5 — Fame, Power, and Beauty

Anderson, C., & Berdahl, J. (2002). The experience of power: examining the effects of power on approach and inhibition tendencies. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83, 1362-1377.

Brim, O. G. (2009). Look at me!: the fame motive from childhood to death. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.

Carey, B. (2006, August 22). The fame motive. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Diener, E., Wolsic, B., & Fujita, F. (1995). Physical attractiveness and subjective well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 69, 120-129.

Dokoupil, T. (2010, July 19). Don't hate me because i'm beautiful: beauty can be its own glass ceiling. Newsweek. Retrieved from

Fiske, S. T. (1993). Controlling other people: the impact of power on stereotyping. American Psychologist, 48, 621-628.

Galinsky, A., Magee, J., Inesi, M., Gruenfeld, D. (2006). Power and perspectives not taken. Psychological Science, vol. 17 no. 12 1068-1074.

Gesquiere, L., Learn, N., Simao, M., Onyango, P., et al. (2011). Life at the top: rank and stress in wild male baboons. Science, 2011; 333 (6040): 357-360.

Johnson, S., Podratz, K., Dipboye, R., Gibbons, E. (2010). Physical attractiveness biases in ratings of employment suitability: tracking down the 'beauty is beastly' effect. The Journal of Social Psychology, 2010; 150 (3): 301.

Kasser, T., Ryan, R. (1996). Further examining the american dream: differential correlates of intrinsic and extrinsic goals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, v22 n3 p280-87.

Keltner, D. (2007-08). The Power Paradox. Greater Good, Volume IV, Issue 3.

Kipinis, D. (1972). Does power corrupt? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 24, 33-41.

Lehrer, J. (2010, August 14). The power trip. The Wall Street Journal.

Meyer, B., et al. (2007) Happiness and despair on the catwalk: Need satisfaction, well-being, and personality adjustment among fashion models. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 2(1): 2–17.

Niemiec, C., Ryan, R., Deci, E. (2009). The path taken: consequences of attaining intrinsic and extrinsic aspirations in post-college life. Journal of Research in Personality, Volume 43, Issue 3, Pages 291-306.

Ohio State University (2008, February 15). When people feel powerful, they ignore new opinions, study finds. ScienceDaily. Retrieved November 19, 2010, from

Reiss, N. (2007, August 9). Women who receive breast implants more likely to commit suicide. Retrieved from

Revill, J. (2003, March 16). Happiness is about having fun, not fame. The Observer. Retrieved from

Sommers, S. (2011, August 3). When being beautiful backfires. Huffington Post. Retrieved from

Street, H., et al. (2004). Understanding the relationships between well-being, goal-setting and depression in children. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 38, No. 3 , Pages 155-161.

Wengle, HP. (1986). The psychology of cosmetic surgery: a critical overview of the literature 1960-1982--Part I. Annals of Plastic Surgery, 16(5):435-43.

Yu, D., & Shepard, G. (1998). Is beauty in the eye of the beholder? Nature396, 321-322.

Chapter 6 — The Amazing Power of Habit

Barnes, T., et al. (2005). Activity of striatal neurons reflects dynamic encoding and recoding of procedural memories. Nature, Vol. 437(20).

Begley, S. (2007). Train your mind, change your brain: how a new science reveals our extraordinary potential to transform ourselves. New York: Ballantine Books.

Dean, M. (2002). Effects of vow-making on adherence to a 12-week personal fitness program, self-efficacy, and theory of planned behavior constructs. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62(12-B): p. 5959.

DiSalvo, D. (2010, February 23). Why we return to bad habits. Scientific American. Retrieved from

Jog, M. et al. (1999). Building Neural Representations of Habits. Science, 286(5445), pp, 1745-1749.

Kalivas, P., Volkow, M. (2005). The neural basis of addiction: a pathology of motivation and choice. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162:1403-1413.

Kraus, S. (2004). How to replace bad habits with good ones: the science of habit management. Vista online, retrieved from

Lally, P., et al. (2010). How are habits formed: modeling habit formation in the real world. European Journal of Social Psychology, vol. 40(6), 998-1009.

Neergaard, L. (2011, Jan. 3). Can't kick bad habits? blame the brain. Retrieved from

Neal, D., Wood,  W., Wu, M., Kurlander, D. (2011). The Pull of the Past: When Do Habits Persist Despite Conflict With Motives? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, DOI: 10.1177/0146167211419863.

Nordgren, L., van Harreveld, F., van der Pligt, J., (2009). The restraint bias: how the illusion of self-restraint promotes impulsive behavior. Psychological Science, vol. 20 no. 12 1523-1528.

Schlund, M., Cataldo, M., Hoehn-Saric, R. (2008). Neural correlates of derived relational responding on tests of stimulus equivalence. Behavioral and Brain Functions, 4:6.

Schlund, M., et al. (2008). Experience-dependent plasticity: differential changes in activation associated with repeated reinforcement. Neuroscience, 155(1), 17-23.

Schlund, M., Hoehn-Saric, R., Cataldo, M. (2007). New knowledge derived from learned knowledge: Functional-anatomic correlates of stimulus equivalence. Journal of Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 87, 287-307.

Chapter 7 — Releasing the Past

Bryant, R., et al. (2008). Treatment of acute stress disorder: A randomized controlled trial. Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(6):659-667.

Dickerson, S., et al. (2004). Immunological Effects of Induced Shame and Guilt. Psychosomatic Medicine 66:124-131.

Dunham, W. (2008, June 2). Study finds reliving trauma can help ward off PTSD. Reuters. Retrieved from

Exline, J., Yali, A. and Sanderson, W. (2000). Guilt, discord, and alienation: The role of religious strain in depression and suicidality. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56: 1481–1496.

Ito, T., Larsen, J., Smith, N., Cacioppo, J. (1998). Negative Information Weighs More Heavily on the Brain: The Negativity Bias in Evaluative Categorizations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 75, No- 4, 887-900.

Kang, M., Hong, S., Blake, R., Woodman, G. (2011). Visual working memory contaminates perception. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review; DOI: 10.3758/s13423-011-0126-5

Kensinger, E. (2007). Negative emotion enhances memory accuracy. Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 16 no. 4 213-218.

Levine, S. Z., Laufer, A., Stein, E., Hamama-Raz, Y. and Solomon, Z. (2009). Examining the relationship between resilience and posttraumatic growth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 22: 282–286.

Morrow, J., Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1990). Effects of responses to depression on the remediation of depressive affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 58(3), Mar 1990, 519-527.

Peterson, C., et al.  (2008). Strengths of character and posttraumatic growth. Journal of Traumatic Stress, 21: 214–217.

Petrie, K., et al. (1995) Disclosure of trauma and immune response to a hepatitis B vaccination program. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol 63(5), 787-792.

Rozin, P., Royzman, E. (2001). Negativity Bias, Negativity Dominance, and Contagion. Personality and Social Psychology Revue, vol. 5 no. 4 296-320.

University of Colorado at Boulder (2007, July 13). Emotional memories can be suppressed with practice, study says. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from

Warner, J. (2007, August 29). Are bad memories easier to remember? CBS News. Retrieved from

Chapter 8 — Turning the Page

Enright, R. D. (2001). Forgiveness is a choice: a step-by-step process for resolving anger and restoring hope. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Gilbert, P. and Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy, 13: 353–379.

Harris, A.H, Luskin, F.M.., Benisovich, S.V., Standard, S., Bruning, J., Evans, S. and Thoresen, C.  (2006). Effects of a group forgiveness intervention on forgiveness, perceived stress and trait anger: A randomized trial. Journal of Clinical Psychology.  62(6) 715-733.

Henderson, M. (2009). No enemy to conquer: forgiveness in an unforgiving world. Waco, TX: Baylor University Press.

Karremans J., Van Lange, P., Holland R. (2005). Forgiveness and its associations with prosocial thinking, feeling, and doing beyond the relationship with the offender. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, Vol. 31 no. 10 1315-1326.

Lawler K., et al. (2003). A change of heart: cardiovascular correlates of forgiveness in response to interpersonal conflict. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Volume 26, Number 5, 373-393.

Lawler K, et al. (2005). The unique effects of forgiveness on health: an exploration of pathways. Journal of Behavioral Medicine. Volume 28, Number 2, 157-167.

Luskin, F. (2002). Forgive for good: a proven prescription for health and happiness. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco.

Luskin, F. M., Ginzburg, K & Thoresen, C. E. (2005). The effect of forgiveness training on psychosocial factors in college age adults. Humboldt Journal of Social Relations. Special Issue: Altruism, intergroup apology and forgiveness: antidote for a divided world. 29(2) 163-184.

Mayo Clinic Staff. (2009, November 21). Forgiveness: Letting go of grudges and bitterness. Retrieved from

McCullough, M. E., Pargament, K. I., & Thoresen, C. E. (2000). Forgiveness: theory, research, and practice. New York: Guilford Press.

Noll, J. (2005). Forgiveness in people experiencing trauma. In E. Worthington (Ed.), Handbook of Forgiveness (pp. 363-372). New York: Routledge.

Noll, J. (2003). The process of forgiving childhood sexual abuse. Paper presented at the conference on Scientific Findings About Forgiveness, Atlanta, GA.

Peterson, K. (2003, October 23). Forgiveness could be balm for the body, too; The shackles of the past can harm your health, experts warn. USA Today. Retrieved from

Tibbits, D., Ellis, G., Piramelli, C., Luskin, F., & Lukman, R. (2006). Hypertension reduction through forgiveness training. Journal of Pastoral Care and Counseling. 60(1-2):27-34.

Worthington, E. L. (2005). Handbook of forgiveness. New York: Routledge.

Chapter 9 — Forgetting the Future

Holman, E., Silver, R. (2006). Future-oriented thinking and adjustment in a nationwide longitudinal study following the september 11th terrorist attacks. Motivation and Emotion, Volume 29, Number 4, 385-406.

Holman, E., Silver, R., Poulin, M., Andersen, J., Gil-Rivas, V., McIntosh, D. (2008). Terrorism, acute stress, and cardiovascular health: a 3-year national study following the September 11th attacks.Archives of General Psychiatry, 65(1):73-80.

Kubzansky, L., et al. (1997). Is worrying bad for your heart? a prospective study of worry and coronary heart disease in the normative aging study. Circulation, 95:818-824.

Loewenstein, G., O'Donoghue, T., Rabin, M. (2003). Projection Bias In Predicting Future Utility. The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Vol. 118, No. 4, Pages 1209-1248.

Quoidbach, J., Dunn, E. (2010). Personality neglect: the unforeseen impact of personal dispositions on emotional life. Psychological Science, vol. 21 no. 12 1783-1786.

Segerstrom, S., Tsao, J., Alden, L., Craske, M. (2000). Worry and rumination: repetitive thought as a concomitant and predictor of negative mood. Cognitive Therapy and Research, Volume 24, Number 6, 671-688.

Street, H., (1999). Depression and the pursuit of happiness. Clinical Psychologist, Volume 4, Issue 1, pages 18–25.

Wiese, B., Freund, A. (2005). Goal progress makes one happy, or does it? Longitudinal findings from the work domain. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, Volume 78, Issue 2, pages 287–304.

Wilson, T., Gilbert, D. (2005). Affective forecasting: knowing what to want. Current Directions in Psychological Science, Vol. 14, No. 3.

Chapter 10 — Awareness: Pure and Simple

Boyd-Wilson, B., Walkey, F., McClure, J. (2002). Present and correct: we kid ourselves less when we live in the moment. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 33, Issue 5, Pages 691-702.

Killingsworth, M., Gilbert, D. (2010). A wandering mind is an unhappy mind. Science, Vol. 330 no. 6006 p. 932.

Chapter 11 — The Never-Ending Stream

Ambady, N., & Gray, H. (2002). On being sad and mistaken: Mood effects on the accuracy of thin-slice judgments. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology83(4), 947-961.

Anderson, D. (2004, April 21). Sports of The Times; It's About Finding a Zone, Not Zen, for Rodriguez. The New York Times. Retrieved from

Beck, A., & Rector, N. (2002). Delusions: a cognitive perspective. Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy, 16(4), 455-468.

Bingel, U., et al. (2011). The Effect of Treatment Expectation on Drug Efficacy: Imaging the Analgesic Benefit of the Opioid Remifentanil. Science Translational Medicine. 3, 70ra14.

Cleaves, M. (2003, November). Mind the Gaps. SAGA.

Diener, E. (2009). Happiness is the frequency, not the intensity, of positive versus negative affect. Social Indicators Research Series, Volume 39, 213-231.

Eden, D. (1992). Leadership and expectations: Pygmalion effects and other self-fulfilling prophecies in organizations. The Leadership Quarterly3(4), 271-305.

Ferguson, Carissa Y., (2006). Older adults and depression : the relationships between distorted thinking, quality of life and depressive themes. Psychology Dissertations. Paper 46.

Fredrickson, B. (2009). Positivity. New York: Three Rivers Press.

Gasper, K., Clore, G. (2002). Attending to the big picture: mood and global versus local processing of visual information. Psychological Science, 13(1):34-40.

Gollub, R. Kong, J. (2011). For Placebo Effects in Medicine, Seeing Is Believing. Science Translational Medicine, Vol. 3, Issue 70, p. 70ps5.

Haukkala, A., et al. (2010). Hostility, anger control, and Anger Expression as predictors of cardiovascular disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, vol. 72 no. 6 556-562.

Helweg-Larsen, M., Sadeghian, P., & Webb, M. S. (2002). The Stigma of Being Pessimistically Biased. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 21(1), 92-107.

Hollon, S., & Kendall, P. (1980). Cognitive self-statements in depression: Development of an automatic thoughts questionnaire. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 4(4), 383-395.

Joormann, J., Levens, S., & Gotlib, I. (2011). Sticky Thoughts: Depression and Rumination Are Associated With Difficulties Manipulating Emotional Material in Working Memory. Psychological Science22(8), 979-983.

Kendall, P., Howard, B., & Hays, R. (1989). Self-referent speech and psychopathology: The balance of positive and negative thinking. Cognitive Therapy and Research13(6), 583-598.

Kubzansky, L, Davidson, K,  Rozanski, A. (2005).  The clinical impact of negative psychological states: expanding the spectrum of risk for coronary artery disease. Psychosomatic Medicine, 67:S10-S14.

Leitenberg, H., Yost, L., Carroll-Wilson, M. (1986). Negative cognitive errors in children: questionnaire development, normative data, and comparisons between children with and without self-reported symptoms of depression, low self-esteem, and evaluation anxiety. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 54- 4, 528-536.

McCormick, M. J. (2001). Self-Efficacy and Leadership Effectiveness: Applying Social Cognitive Theory to Leadership. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 8(1), 22-33.

Murray, S. L., Holmes, J. G., & Griffin, D. W. (1996). The self-fulfilling nature of positive illusions in romantic relationships: Love is not blind, but prescient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 71(6), 1155-1180.

Peterson, C., Seligman, M., & Vaillant, G. (1988). Pessimistic explanatory style is a risk factor for physical illness: A thirty-five-year longitudinal study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 55(1), 23-27.

Rietveld, S. (2002). Negative thoughts in adults with congenital heart disease. International Journal of Cardiology86(1), 19-26.

Schniering, C., & Rapee, R. (2004). The Relationship Between Automatic Thoughts and Negative Emotions in Children and Adolescents: A Test of the Cognitive Content-Specificity Hypothesis.Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 113(3), 464-470.

Schwartz, R. (1986). The internal dialogue: On the asymmetry between positive and negative coping thoughts. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 10(6), 591-605.

Schulman, P. (1999). Applying learned optimism to increase sales productivity. Journal of Personal Selling and Sales Management. Vol. XIX, N. 1, 31-37.

Sutin, A., et al. (2010). Trait antagonism and the progression of arterial thickening. Hypertension, Vol. 56: 617-622.

Teasdale, J. (1983). Negative thinking in depression: Cause, effect, or reciprocal relationship? Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 5(1), 3-25.

Tennanta, C., McLeana, L. (2001). The impact of emotions on coronary heart disease risk. European Journal of Cardiovascular Prevention & Rehabilitation, vol. 8 no. 3 175-183.

Treadwell, K., & Kendall, P. (1996). Self-talk in youth with anxiety disorders: States of mind, content specificity, and treatment outcome. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 64(5), 941-950.

Williams, J., et al. (2000). Anger proneness predicts coronary heart disease risk. Circulation, Vol. 101: 2034-2039.

Chapter 12 — Your Are Luckier Than You Think

Adams, J. (2006, December). Go Ahead....Smile! Prevention. Retrieved from

Allan, L., Siegel, S., & Hannah, S. (2007). The sad truth about depressive realism. The Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology60(3), 482-495.

American Heart Association (2011, July 21). Optimism associated with lower risk of having stroke. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Ftop_news%2Ftop_health+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Top+News+--+Top+Health%29

Aspinwall, L., & Brunhart, S. (1996). Distinguishing Optimism from Denial: Optimistic Beliefs Predict Attention to Health Threats. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(10), 993-1003.

Blanco, F., Matute, H., & Vadillo, M. (2009). Depressive realism: Wiser or quieter? Psychological Record, 59, 551-562.

Brissette, I., Scheier, M., & Carver, C. (2002). The role of optimism in social network development, coping, and psychological adjustment during a life transition. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology82(1), 102-111.

Danner, D., Snowdon, D.  & Friesen, W. (2001). Positive emotions in early life and longevity: Findings from the nun study. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 80(5), 804-813.

Dunning, D., & Story, A. (1991). Depression, realism, and the overconfidence effect: Are the sadder wiser when predicting future actions and events? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology,61(4), 521-532.

Dykman, B., Abramson, L., Alloy, L., & Hartlage, S. (1989). Processing of ambiguous and unambiguous feedback by depressed and nondepressed college students: Schematic biases and their implications for depressive realism. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56(3), 431-445.

Fredrickson, B., Levenson, R. (1998). Positive Emotions Speed Recovery from the Cardiovascular Sequelae of Negative Emotions. Cognition & Emotion, 12(2), 191-220.

Fredrickson, B., Mancuso, R., Branigan, C., Tugade, M. (2000). The Undoing Effect of Positive Emotions. Motivation and Emotion, Vol. 24, No. 4.

Fu, T., et al. (2005). Depression, Confidence, and Decision: Evidence Against Depressive Realism. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 27(4), 243-252.

Gasper, K., & Clore, G. (2002). Attending to the Big Picture: Mood and Global Versus Local Processing of Visual Information. Psychological Science13(1), 34-40.

Giltay, E., et al. (2004). Dispositional optimism and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in a prospective cohort of elderly dutch men and women. Archives of General Psychiatry, 61(11):1126-35.

Giltay E., et al. (2006). Dispositional optimism and the risk of cardiovascular death: the Zutphen Elderly Study. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166(4):431-6.

Jain, K, Bearden, J, Filipowicz, A. (2011). Depression and Accuracy: Evidence from the 2010 FIFA World Cup. INSEAD Working Paper, No. 2011/19/DS/OB. Available at SSRN:

Langer, E. (2009). Counter clockwise: mindful health and the power of possibility. New York: Ballantine Books.

Langer, E., et al. (2010). Believing Is Seeing: Using Mindlessness (Mindfully) to Improve Visual Acuity. Psychological Science, 21(5), 661-666.

Lau, J., Molyneaux, E., Telman, M., Belli, S. (2011). The Plasticity of Adolescent Cognitions: Data from a Novel Cognitive Bias Modification Training Task. Child Psychiatry & Human Development.DOI: 10.1007/s10578-011-0244-3

Layous, K. et al. (2011). Delivering Happiness: Translating Positive Psychology Intervention Research for Treating Major and Minor Depressive Disorders. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, 17 (8): 675.

Moser, J., et al. (2011). Mind your errors: Evidence for a neural mechanism linking growth mindset to adaptive post-error adjustments. Psychological Science.

Msetfi, R., Murphy, R., Simpson, J., & Kornbrot, D. (2005). Depressive Realism and Outcome Density Bias in Contingency Judgments: The Effect of the Context and Intertrial Interval. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General134(1), 10-22.

Scheier, M., Weintraub, J., Carver, C. (1986). Coping with stress: Divergent strategies of optimists and pessimists. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 51(6), 257-1264.

Segerstrom, S. (2001). Optimism, Goal Conflict, and Stressor-Related Immune Change. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 24(5): 441-467.

Segerstrom, S. (2005). Optimism and immunity: Do positive thoughts always lead to positive effects? Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, 19(3): 195–200.

Segerstrom, S. C. (2006). Breaking murphy's law: how optimists get what they want from life-- and pessimists can too. New York: Guilford Press.

Seligman, M. (2006). Learned optimism: how to change your mind and your life. New York: Vintage Books.

Tindle, H., et al. (2009). Optimism, Cynical Hostility, and Incident Coronary Heart Disease and Mortality in the Women’s Health Initiative. Circulation, 120: 656-662.

Tugade, M., & Fredrickson, B. (2004). Resilient Individuals Use Positive Emotions to Bounce Back From Negative Emotional Experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 86(2), 320-333.

Chapter 13 — Thanks for Everything

Bartlett, M., & DeSteno, D. (2006). Gratitude and Prosocial Behavior: Helping When It Costs You. Psychological Science17(4), 319-325.

DeSteno, D., et al. (2010). Gratitude as moral sentiment: Emotion-guided cooperation in economic exchange. Emotion10(2), 289-293.

Emmons, R., & McCullough, M. (2003). Counting blessings versus burdens: An experimental investigation of gratitude and subjective well-being in daily life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology84(2), 377-389.

Emmons, R.  (2008). Thanks!: how practicing gratitude can make you happier. New York: Houghton Mifflin.

Fredrickson, B., Tugade, M., Waugh, C., & Larkin, G. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crises?: A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84, 365-376.

Fredrickson, B. (2004). Gratitude, like other positive emotions, broadens and builds. In Emmons, R. A. & M. E. McCullough (Eds.) The Psychology of Gratitude. (pp. 145-166). New York: Oxford University Press.

McCullough, M., Emmons, R., Tsang, J. (2002). The Grateful Disposition: A Conceptual and Empirical Topography. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 82, No. 1, 112–127.

McVeigh, K. (2009, August 12). Smile and count your blessings--it'll make you happier. The Guardian. Retrieved from

Toepfer, S. (2009). Letters of Gratitude: Improving Well-Being through Expressive Writing. Journal of Writing Research, 1(3), 181-198.

Toepfer, S., Cichy, K., Peters, P. (2011). Letters of Gratitude: Further Evidence for Author Benefits. Journal of Happiness Studies. DOI: 10.1007/s10902-011-9257-7

Chapter 14 — Planting the Seeds of Bliss

Boyatzis, C., Kline, S., Backof, S. (2007). Experimental Evidence that Theistic-Religious Body Affirmations Improve Women's Body Image Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 46(4) 553-564.

Cohen, J., et al. (2006). Affirmation of Worth Boosts Scores of Black Children. Scientific American. Retrieved from:

Correll, J., Spencer, S., Zanna, M. (2004). An affirmed self and an open mind: Self-affirmation and sensitivity to argument strength Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 40(3) 350-356.

Creswell, D., et al. (2005). Affirmation of Personal Values Buffers Neuroendocrine and Psychological Stress Responses. Psychological Science, 16(11) 846-851.

Creswell, D, et al. (2007). Does Self-Affirmation, Cognitive Processing, or Discovery of Meaning Explain Cancer-Related Health Benefits of Expressive Writing? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(2), 238-250.

Kinnier, R., Hofsess, C., Pongratz, R., & Lambert, C. (2009). Attributions and affirmations for overcoming anxiety and depression. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 82(2), 153-169

Koole, S., van Knippenberg, A. (2007). Controlling your mind without ironic consequences: Self-affirmation eliminates rebound effects after thought suppression Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, Volume 43, Issue 4, 671-677.

Miyake, A., et al. (2010). Reducing the Gender Achievement Gap in College Science: A Classroom Study of Values Affirmation. Science, Vol. 330 no. 6008 pp. 1234-1237.

Paulsen, O., Sejnowski, T. (2000). Natural patterns of activity and long-term synaptic plasticity. Current Opinion in Neurobiology, 10(2): 172–179.

Peden, A., Hall, L., Rayens, M., Beebe, L. (2004). Reducing Negative Thinking and Depressive Symptoms in College Women Journal of Nursing Scholarship, (32)2 145-151.

Schimel, J., Arndt, J., Banko, K., Cook, A. (2004). Not All Self-affirmations Were Created Equal: The Cognitive and Social Benefits of Affirming The Intrinsic (vs. Extrinsic) Self.  Social Cognition, 22(1) 75-99.

Sherman, D., Nelson, L., & Steele, C. (2000). Do Messages about Health Risks Threaten the Self? Increasing the Acceptance of Threatening Health Messages Via Self-Affirmation. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin26(9), 1046-1058.

Sherman, D., et al. (2007). The Group as a Resource: Reducing Biased Attributions for Group Success and Failure via Group Affirmation. Perspectives in Social Psychology Bulletin, vol. 33 no. 8 1100-1112.

Shrier, I., Halle, M. (2011). Psychological predictors of injuries in circus artists: an exploratory study. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 45:433-436.

Sivanathan, N., Molden, D., Galinsky, A., Kua, G. (2008). The promise and peril of self-affirmation in de-escalation of commitment. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 107 1-14.

Steele, C. (1988). The psychology of self-affirmation: Sustaining the integrity of the self. In L. Berkowitz (Ed.), Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 21, pp. 261-302). New York: Academic Press.

Chapter 15 — Environment, Vibration, and Inspiration

Anderson, C., & Bushman, B. (2001). Effects of Violent Video Games on Aggressive Behavior, Aggressive Cognition, Aggressive Affect, Physiological Arousal, and Prosocial Behavior: A Meta-Analytic Review of the Scientific Literature. Psychological Science12(5), 353-359. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00366

Berkowitz, L. (1984). Some effects of thoughts on anti- and prosocial influences of media events: A cognitive-neoassociation analysis. Psychological Bulletin95(3), 410-427. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.95.3.410

Brereton, F., Clinch, J., & Ferreira, S. (2008). Happiness, geography and the environment. Ecological Economics65(2), 386-396. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2007.07.008

Carlton, J. (2009, April 24). Against Insect Plague, Nevadans Wield Ultimate Weapon: Hard Rock. Wall Street Journal.

Cohen-Mansfield, J., & Werner, P. (1997). The effects of an enhanced environment on nursing home residents who pace. The Gerontologist38(2), 199-208.

Friedrich, L., & Stein, A. (1973). Aggressive and Prosocial Television Programs and the Natural Behavior of Preschool Children. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development38(4), 151st ser., 1-64.

Gallagher, L., et al. (2006). The clinical effects of music therapy in palliative medicine. Supportive Care in Cancer14(8), 859-866. doi: 10.1007/s00520-005-0013-6

Golden, R, et al. (2005), The Efficacy of Light Therapy in the Treatment of Mood Disorders: A Review and Meta-Analysis of the Evidence. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162(4): 656 - 662.

Hartig, T., Mang, M., & Evans, G. (1991). Restorative Effects of Natural Environment Experiences. Environment and Behavior23(1), 3-26. doi: 10.1177/0013916591231001

Keller, M., et al. (2005). A Warm Heart and a Clear Head. The Contingent Effects of Weather on Mood and Cognition. Psychological Science16(9), 724-731. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01602.x

Kenealy, P. (1988). Validation of a music mood induction procedure: Some preliminary findings. Cognition & Emotion2(1), 41-48. doi: 10.1080/02699938808415228

KOSLOSKY, J. (2001). HAPPINESS, HOW OUR ENVIRONMENT AFFECTS OUR WELL BEING AND PERFORMANCE (Unpublished master's thesis). Missouri Western State University.

Kuller, R., & Laike, T. (1998). The impact of flicker from fluorescent lighting on well-being, performance and physiological arousal. Ergonomics41(4), 433-447. doi: 10.1080/001401398186928

Kuller, R., & Wetterberg, L. (1996). The subterranean work environment: Impact on well-being and health. Environment International22(1), 33-52. doi: 10.1016/0160-4120(95)00101-8

Leather, P., Pyrgas, M., Beale, D., Lawrence, C. (1998). Windows in the Workplace: Sunlight, View, and Occupational Stress. Environment and Behavior, 30(6): 739 - 762.

Mayer, J., Allen, J., & Beauregard, K. (1995). Mood inductions for four specific moods: A procedure employing guided imagery vignettes with music. Journal of Mental Imagery19(1&2), 133-150.

Mehta, R., & Zhu, R. (2009). Blue or Red? Exploring the Effect of Color on Cognitive Task Performances. Science323(5918), 1226-1229. doi: 10.1126/science.1169144

Melina, R. (2011, July 5). Pollution May Change Your Brain. LiveScience. Retrieved from

Mitterschiffthaler, M., Fu, C., Dalton, J., Andrew, C., & Williams, S. (2007). A functional MRI study of happy and sad affective states induced by classical music. Human Brain Mapping28(11), 1150-1162. doi: 10.1002/hbm.20337

Niedenthal, P., & Setterlund, J. (1997). Being Happy and Seeing “Happy”: Emotional State Mediates Visual Word Recognition. Cognition & Emotion11(4), 403-432. doi: 10.1080/026999397379863

Potts, R., & Sanchez, D. (1994). Television viewing and depression: No news is good news. Journal of Broadcasting & Electronic Media38(1), 79-90. doi: 10.1080/08838159409364247

Rosenthal, N., et al. (1984). Seasonal Affective Disorder A Description of the Syndrome and Preliminary Findings With Light Therapy. Archives of General Psychiatry41(1), 72-80.

Sumaya, I., Rienzi, B., . Deegan II, J., and Moss, D. (2001). Bright Light Treatment Decreases Depression in Institutionalized Older Adults: A Placebo-Controlled Crossover Study. Journal of Gerontology, 56(6): M356 - M360.

Taylor, A, Kuo, F. (2011). Could Exposure to Everyday Green Spaces Help Treat ADHD? Evidence from Children's Play Settings. Applied Psychology: Health and Well-Being, DOI: 10.1111/j.1758-0854.2011.01052.x

Teasley, C. (2003, October). The importance of a retail store's design and atmosphere. Santa Rosa Family and Consumer Sciences Newsletter, 1(8), Retrieved from e1003.pdf

Tractinsky, N., Katz, A., & Ikar, D. (2000). What is beautiful is usable. Interacting with Computers13(2), 127-145.

Ulricha , R. (1979). Visual landscapes and psychological well-being

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Vandewalle, G., et al. (2010). Spectral quality of light modulates emotional brain responses in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences107(45), 19549-19554. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1010180107

Welsch, H. (2006). Environment and happiness: Valuation of air pollution using life satisfaction data. Ecological Economics58(4), 801-813. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2005.09.006

Wiley-Blackwell. (2008, October 14). Soothing Music Reduces Stress, Anxiety And Depression During Pregnancy. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from /081006093020.htm

Chapter 16 — People, Relationships, and Kindness

Adams, R., Santo, J., Bukowski, W. (2011). The presence of a best friend buffers the effects of negative experiences. Developmental Psychology, 47 (6): 1786 DOI: 10.1037/a0025401

Bruni, L., & Stanca, L. (2008). Watching alone: Relational goods, television and happiness. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization65(3-4), 506-528. doi: 10.1016/j.jebo.2005.12.005

Buettner, D. (2005, November). The secrets of long life. National Geographic. Retrieved from

Camfield, L, Choudhury, K, and Devine, J.  (2006). RELATIONSHIPS, HAPPINESS AND WELL-BEING: INSIGHTS FROM BANGLADESH. Economic and Social Research Council, WeD working paper, 14.

Christakis, N., & Fowler, J. (2011). Connected: The surprising power of our social networks and how they shape our lives : How your friends' friends' friends affect everything you feel, think, and do. New York: Back Bay Books.

Diener, E., & Seligman, M. E. (2002). Very Happy People. Psychological Science13(1), 81-84. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00415

Fredrickson, B., et al. (2008). Open hearts build lives: Positive emotions, induced through loving-kindness meditation, build consequential personal resources. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology95(5), 1045-1062. doi: 10.1037/a0013262

Gable, S., Reis, H., Impett, E., & Asher, E. (2004). What Do You Do When Things Go Right? The Intrapersonal and Interpersonal Benefits of Sharing Positive Events. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology87(2), 228-245. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.87.2.228

Gawande, A. (2009, March 30). Hellhole: The United States holds tens of thousands of inmates in long-term solitary confinement. Is this torture? The New Yorker. Retrieved from

Gonzales, J., et al. (2002). Perceptions of Contagious Emotions and Contagious People. Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research7(4), 185-191.

Goodman, C., & Shippy, R. (2002). Is it contagious? Affect similarity among spouses. Aging & Mental Health6(3), 266-274. doi: 10.1080/13607860220142431

Haney, C. (2003). Mental Health Issues in Long-Term Solitary and Supermax Confinement. Crime & Delinquency49(1), 124-156. doi: 10.1177/0011128702239239

Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J., & Rapson, R. (1994). Emotional contagion. Cambridge [England: Cambridge University Press.

Holder, M., & Coleman, B. (2009). The Contribution of Social Relationships to Children’s Happiness. Journal of Happiness Studies10(3), 329-349. doi: 10.1007/s10902-007-9083-0

House, J., Landis, K., & Umberson, D. (1988). Social relationships and health. Science241(4865), 540-545. doi: 10.1126/science.3399889

Joiner, T. (1994). Contagious depression: Existence, specificity to depressed symptoms, and the role of reassurance seeking. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 67(2), 287-296.

Katz, J., Beach, S., Joiner, T. (1999). Contagious Depression in Dating Couples, Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology. Vol 18(1), 1-13.

Kok, B., Fredrickson, B., (2010), Upward spirals of the heart: Autonomic flexibility, as indexed by vagal tone, reciprocally and prospectively predicts positive emotions and social connectedness.Biological Psychology. doi:10.1016/j.biopsycho.2010.09.005

Lundqvist, L., Dimberg, U. (1995). Facial expressions are contagious. Journal of Psychophysiology, Vol. 9(3), 203-211.

Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success? Psychological Bulletin131(6), 803-855. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803

Myers, D. (1999). Close relationships and quality of life. In D. Kahneman, E. Diener, and N. Schwartz (eds.), Well-Being: The foundations of hedonic psychology. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

Myers, D. G. (2000). The funds, friends, and faith of happy people. American Psychologist55(1), 56-67. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.56

Otake, K., et al. (2006). Happy People Become Happier through Kindness: A Counting Kindnesses Intervention. Journal of Happiness Studies7(3), 361-375. doi: 10.1007/s10902-005-3650-z

Rippere, V. (1980). What makes depressed people feel worse? Behavior Research and Therapy, 18 (2), 87-97. doi:10.1016/0005-7967(80)90102-3

Rook, K. (1987). Social support versus companionship: Effects on life stress, loneliness, and evaluations by others. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 52(6), 1132-1147.

Vaillant, G, Mukamal, K. (2001) Successful Aging. American Journal of Psychiatry, 158, 839—847.

Wild, B., Erb, M, Bartels, M. (2001). Are emotions contagious? Evoked emotions while viewing emotionally expressive faces: quality, quantity, time course and gender differences. Psychiatry Research, Volume 102, Issue 2, Pages 109-124.

Chapter 17 — Found in Sixty Seconds

Aziz-Zadeh, L., Sheng, T., Liew, S., Damasio, H. (2011). Understanding Otherness: The Neural Bases of Action Comprehension and Pain Empathy in a Congenital Amputee. Cerebral Cortex, DOI: 10.1093/cercor/bhr139

Baron-Cohen, S. (2011). The science of evil: On empathy and the origins of cruelty. New York: Basic Books.

Case Western Reserve University (2010, November 19). Coaching with compassion can 'light up' human thoughts. ScienceDaily. Retrieved from

Darwin, C. (1998). The descent of man. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.

Darwin, C., & Darwin, F. (1989). The expression of the emotions in man and animals. New York: New York University Press.

Davidson, R & Harrington, A. (2002, eds). Visions of Compassion: Western Scientists and Tibetan Buddhists Examine Human Nature. New York: Oxford University Press.

de Waal, F. (2009). The age of empathy: Nature's lessons for a kinder society. New York: Three Rivers.

Doty, J. (2011, March 26). Is being compassionate healthy? The Washington Post. Retrieved from

Eisenberg, N., & Fabes, R. (1990). Empathy: Conceptualization, measurement, and relation to prosocial behavior. Motivation and Emotion14(2), 131-149. doi: 10.1007/BF00991640

Eisenberg, N., & Miller, P.  (1987). The relation of empathy to prosocial and related behaviors. Psychological Bulletin101(1), 91-119. doi: 10.1037//0033-2909.101.1.91

Ekman, P. (2010). Darwin's Compassionate View of Human Nature, JAMA, 303(6):557-558. doi:10.1001/jama.2010.101

Fogarty, L., et al. (1999). Can 40 Seconds of Compassion Reduce Patient Anxiety? Journal of Clinical Oncology, Vol 17, Issue 1: 371

Geddes, D., Stickney, L. (2010). The trouble with sanctions: Organizational responses to deviant anger displays at work. Human Relations, 64 (2): 201 DOI: 10.1177/0018726710375482

Gilbert, P. (2005). Compassion: Conceptualisations, research and use in psychotherapy. London: Routledge.

Gilbert P & Irons, C. (2004). A pilot exploration of the use of compassionate images in a group of self-critical people. Memory, 12, 507-516.

Gilbert, P., & Procter, S. (2006). Compassionate mind training for people with high shame and self-criticism: Overview and pilot study of a group therapy approach. Clinical Psychology & Psychotherapy13(6), 353-379. doi: 10.1002/cpp.507

Gilbert, P. (2009). The compassionate mind: A new approach to life's challenges. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications.

Goetz, J. Keltner, D., and Simon-Thomas, E. (2010). Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review. Psychological Bulletin, 136(3), Pages 351-374.

Lutz, A., et al. (2008). Regulation of the Neural Circuitry of Emotion by Compassion Meditation: Effects of Meditative Expertise. PLoS ONE, 3 (3): e1897 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0001897

Mongrain, M., Chin, J., Shapira, L. (2011). Practicing Compassion Increases Happiness and Self-Esteem, Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 12 (6), 963-981. Doi: 10.1007/s10902-010-9239-1

Neff, K.  (2003). Self-Compassion: An alternative conceptualization of a healthy attitude toward oneself. Self and Identity, 2, 85-102.

Neff, K.  (2003). The development and validation of a scale to measure self- compassion. Self and Identity, 2, 223-250.

Neff, K., & Vonk, R. (2009). Self-Compassion Versus Global Self-Esteem: Two Different Ways of Relating to Oneself. Journal of Personality77(1), 23-50. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-6494.2008.00537.x

Pace, T., et al. (2009). Effect of compassion meditation on neuroendocrine, innate immune and behavioral responses to psychosocial stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology, Vol. 34 (1), 87-98.

Rein, G., Atkinson, M & McCraty, R. (1995) The physiological and psychological effects of compassion and anger. Journal for the Advancement of Medicine. 8, 87-105.

Shamay-Tsoory, S., et al. (2010). The role of the orbitofrontal cortex in affective theory of mind deficits in criminal offenders with psychopathic tendencies. Cortex, 46 (5): 668 DOI: 10.1016/j.cortex.2009.04.008

Shamay-Tsoory, S. (2010). The Neural Bases for Empathy. The Neuroscientist, DOI: 10.1177/1073858410379268

Chapter 18 — Selfless Service

Aknin, L., et al. (2010). Prosocial Spending and Well-Being: Cross-Cultural Evidence for a Psychological Universal. National Bureau of Economic Research, Working paper No. 16415.

Batson, D. (2011). Altruism in humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Batson, C., Dyck, J., Brandt, J., Batson, J., & et al. (1988). Five studies testing two new egoistic alternatives to the empathy-altruism hypothesis. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology55(1), 52-77. doi: 10.1037//0022-3514.55.1.52

Batson, C., & Shaw, L.  (1991). Evidence for Altruism: Toward a Pluralism of Prosocial Motives. Psychological Inquiry2(2), 107-122. doi: 10.1207/s15327965pli0202_1

Dunn, E. , Aknin, L., & Norton, M. (2008). Spending Money on Others Promotes Happiness. Science319(5870), 1687-1688. doi: 10.1126/science.1150952

Fehr, E., & Fischbacher, U. (2003). The nature of human altruism. Nature425(6960), 785-791. doi: 10.1038/nature02043

Flynn, F., Reagans, R., Amanatullah, E., & Ames, D. (2006). Helping one's way to the top: Self-monitors achieve status by helping others and knowing who helps whom. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology91(6), 1123-1137. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.91.6.1123

Grant, A., & Sonnentag, S. (2010). Doing good buffers against feeling bad: Prosocial impact compensates for negative task and self-evaluations. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes111(1), 13-22. doi: 10.1016/j.obhdp.2009.07.003

Horner, V., et al. (2011). Spontaneous prosocial choice by chimpanzees. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1111088108

Luks, A., & Payne, P. (2001). The healing power of doing good: The health and spiritual benefits of helping others. Lincoln, NE:

Lyubomirsky, S., Sheldon, K., & Schkade, D. (2005). Pursuing Happiness: The Architecture of Sustainable Change. Review of General Psychology9(2), 111-131. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.9.2.111

Kohn, A. (1990). The brighter side of human nature: Altruism and empathy in everyday life. New York: Basic Books.

Krishna, A. (2011). Can supporting a cause decrease donations and happiness? The cause marketing paradox. Consumer Psychology, doi:10.1016/j.jcps.2011.02.001

Monroe, K. (1998). The heart of altruism: Perceptions of a common humanity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.

Nowak, M., & Highfield, R. (2011). SuperCooperators: Altruism, evolution, and why we need each other to succeed. New York: Free Press.

Pagano, M., et al. (2004). Helping Other Alcoholics in Alcoholics Anonymous and Drinking Outcomes: Findings from Project MATCH. Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs. 65(6): 766–773.

Piliavin, J. (2003). Doing well by doing good: Benefits for the benefactor. In C. L. Keyes & J. Haidt (Authors), Flourishing: Positive psychology and the life well-lived. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Post, S. (2005). Altuism, Happiness, and Health: It's Good to Be Good. International Journal of Behavioral Medicine12(2), 66-77.

Post, S. (2007). Altruism and health: Perspectives from empirical research. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Schmidt, M., Sommerville, J. (2011). Expectations and Altruistic Sharing in 15-Month-Old Human Infants. PLoS ONE, 6 (10): e23223 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023223

Schwartz, C., & Sendor, R. (1999). Helping others helps oneself: Response shift effects in peer support. Social Science & Medicine48(11), 1563-1575. doi: 10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00049-0

Scott, N., Seglow, J. (2007). Altruism. UK: Open University Press.

Sober, E., & Wilson, D. (1999). Unto others: The evolution and psychology of unselfish behavior. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.

Snyder, C., & Lopez, S. (2009). Oxford handbook of positive psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Staub, E., & Vollhardt, J. (2008). Altruism born of suffering: The roots of caring and helping after victimization and other trauma. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry78(3), 267-280. doi: 10.1037/a0014223

Steger, M. (2008). Being good by doing good: Daily eudaimonic activity and well-being. Journal of Research in Personality42(1), 22-42. doi: 10.1016/j.jrp.2007.03.004

Tischler, L., Biberman, J., & McKeage, R. (2002). Linking emotional intelligence, spirituality and workplace performance: Definitions, models and ideas for research. Journal of Managerial Psychology,17(3), 203-218. doi: 10.1108/02683940210423114

Toi, M., & Batson, C. (1982). More evidence that empathy is a source of altruistic motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology43(2), 281-292. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.43.2.281

Wang, C., Wang, C. (2008). Helping Others in Online Games: Prosocial Behavior in Cyberspace. CyberPsychology & Behavior, 11(3): 344- 346. doi:10.1089/cpb.2007.0045.

Warneken, F. (2006). Altruistic Helping in Human Infants and Young Chimpanzees. Science311(5765), 1301-1303. doi: 10.1126/science.1121448

Weinstein, N., Ryan, R. (2010). When helping helps: Autonomous motivation for prosocial behavior and its influence on well-being for the helper and recipient. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol 98(2), 222-244.

Zemore, S., Kaskutas, L. (2004). Helping, Spirituality and Alcoholics Anonymous in Recovery. Journal of Studies on Alcohol, Vol. 65.

Zemore, S., Kaskutas, L., & Ammon, L. (2004). In 12-step groups, helping helps the helper. Addiction99(8), 1015-1023. doi: 10.1111/j.1360-0443.2004.00782.x

Chapter 19 — Love Without Reason

Assor, A., Roth, G., & Deci, E. (2004). The Emotional Costs of Parents' Conditional Regard: A Self-Determination Theory Analysis. Journal of Personality72(1), 47-88. doi: 10.1111/j.0022-3506.2004.00256.x

Beauregard, M., Courtemanche, J., Paquette, V., & St-Pierre, E. (2009). The neural basis of unconditional love. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging172(2), 93-98. doi: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.11.003

Kohn, A. (2009, September 14). When a Parent’s ‘I Love You’ Means ‘Do as I Say’. The New York Times.

Radin, D., et al. (2008). Compassionate Intention As a Therapeutic Intervention by Partners of Cancer Patients: Effects of Distant Intention on the Patients' Autonomic Nervous System. Explore: The Journal of Science and Healing, Volume 4, Issue 4, Pages 235-243.

Roth, G., et al. (2009). The emotional and academic consequences of parental conditional regard: Comparing conditional positive regard, conditional negative regard, and autonomy support as parenting practices. Developmental Psychology45(4), 1119-1142. doi: 10.1037/a0015272

Sillick, T., Schutte, N. (2006). Emotional Intelligence and Self-Esteem Mediate Between Perceived Early Parental Love and Adult Happiness. E-Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol 2, No 2.

Chapter 20 — Discovering Meaning, Finding Purpose

Bickerstaff, K., Grasser, C., McCabe, B. (2003). How Elderly Nursing Home Residents Transcend Losses of Later Life. Holistic Nursing Practice, Volume 17 - Issue 3 - p 159-165.

Bower, J., Kemeny, M., Taylor, S., & Fahey, J. (1998). Cognitive processing, discovery of meaning, CD4 decline, and AIDS-related mortality among bereaved HIV-seropositive men. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology66(6), 979-986. doi: 10.1037/0022-006X.66.6.979

Frankl, V. (1966). Self-Transcendence as a Human Phenomenon. Journal of Humanistic Psychology6(2), 97-106. doi: 10.1177/002216786600600201

Fryback, P., & Reinert, B. (1999). Spirituality and People With Potentially Fatal Diagnoses. Nursing Forum34(1), 13-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.1999.tb00231.x

Goldberg, B., Brintnell, E. , & Goldberg, J. (2002). The Relationship Between Engagement in Meaningful Activities and Quality of Life in Persons Disabled by Mental Illness. Occupational Therapy in Mental Health18(2), 17-44. doi: 10.1300/J004v18n02_03

Huang, P., Swedloff, R. (2007-2008). Authentic Happiness and Meaning at Law Firms. Syracuse Law Review, 58(335).

King, L., Hicks, J., Krull, J., & Del Gaiso, A. (2006). Positive affect and the experience of meaning in life. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology90(1), 179-196. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.90.1.179

King, L., & Napa, C. (1998). What makes a life good? Journal of Personality and Social Psychology75(1), 156-165. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.75.1.156

Levit, R. (1992). Meaning, purpose, and leadership. International Forum for Logotherapy, Vol 15(2), 71-75.

Newburg, D., Kimiecik, J., Durand-Bush, N., & Doell, K. (2002). The Role of Resonance in Performance Excellence and Life Engagement. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology14(4), 249-267. doi: 10.1080/10413200290103545

Peterson, C., Park, N., & Seligman, M. (2005). Orientations to happiness and life satisfaction: The full life versus the empty life. Journal of Happiness Studies6(1), 25-41. doi: 10.1007/s10902-004-1278-z

Reker, G., Peacock, E., Wong, P. (1986). Meaning and Purpose in Life and Well-being: a Life-span Perspective. Journal of Gerontology, Volume 42, Issue 1 Pp. 44-49.

Ryff, C. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology57(6), 1069-1081. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069

Shek, D. (1992). Meaning in life and psychological well-being: an empirical study using the Chinese version of the Purpose in Life questionnaire. Journal of Genetic Psychology, 153(2):185-200.

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Chapter 21 — Embracing Your Spiritual Self

Ai, A., Park, C., Huang, B., Rodgers, W., & Tice, T. (2007). Psychosocial mediation of religious coping styles: a study of short-term psychological distress following cardiac surgery. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 33(6):867-82

Argyle, M., and Hills, P. (2000). Religious experiences and their relations with happiness and personality. The International Journal for the Psychology of Religion, 10, 157-172.

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Davis, T., et al. (2003). Meaning, Purpose, and Religiosity in At-Risk Youth: The Relationship between Anxiety and Spirituality. Journal of Psychology and Theology, Vol. 31.

Dedert, E., et al. (2004). RELIGIOSITY MAY HELP PRESERVE THE CORTISOL RHYTHM IN WOMEN WITH STRESS-RELATED ILLNESS. The International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Issue, Volume 34, Number 1, 61 – 77.

Easterling, L., Gamino L., Sewell K., Stirman L. (2000). Spiritual experience, church attendance, and bereavement, Journal of Pastoral Care, 54(3):263-75.

Edmondson, K., et al. (2005). Spirituality Predicts Health and Cardiovascular Responses to Stress in Young Adult Women. Journal of Religion and Health44(2), 161-171. doi: 10.1007/s10943-005-2774-0

Ellison, C., & Levin, J. (1998). The Religion-Health Connection: Evidence, Theory, and Future Directions. Health Education & Behavior25(6), 700-720. doi: 10.1177/109019819802500603

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Fredrickson, B. (2002). How Does Religion Benefit Health and Well-Being? Are Positive Emotions Active Ingredients? Psychological Inquiry, 13(3), 209-213.

Fryback, P., & Reinert, B. (1999). Spirituality and People With Potentially Fatal Diagnoses. Nursing Forum34(1), 13-22. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.1999.tb00231.x

Galea M, Ciarrocchi J., Piedmont R, & Wicks R. (2007). Child abuse, personality, and spirituality as predictors of happiness in Maltese college students. Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 18: 141-154.

Gillum R., Ingram D. (2006). Frequency of attendance at religious services, hypertension, and blood pressure: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychosomatic Medicine, 68: 382-385

Gnadt, B. (2006). Religiousness, Current Substance Use, and Early Risk Indicators for Substance Abuse in Nursing Students. Journal of Addictions Nursing17(3), 151-158. doi: 10.1080/10884600600862103

Hackney, C., Sanders, G. (2003). Religiosity and mental health: a meta-analysis of Recent Studies. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 42:1, 43-55.

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Joshanloo, M. (2011). Investigation of the Contribution of Spirituality and Religiousness to Hedonic and Eudaimonic Well-Being in Iranian Young Adults. Journal of Happiness Studies, Vol. 12, No. 6, 915-930, DOI: 10.1007/s10902-010-9236-4.

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Koenig, H. (2001). Religion and Medicine II: Religion, Mental Health, and Related Behaviors. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Issue, Volume31, Number 1, 97-109.

Koenig, H. (2001). Religion and Medicine IV: Religion, Physical Health, and Clinical Implications. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine Issue, Volume31, Number 3, 321-336.

Koenig, H., Larson, D. (2001). Religion and mental health: Evidence for an association. International Review of Psychiatry13(2), 67-78. doi: 10.1080/09540260124661

Koenig, H., et al. (2004). Religion, Spirituality, and Medicine. Southern Medical Journal, Volume 97, Number 12.

Keltner, D., & Haidt, J. (2003). Approaching awe, a moral, spiritual, and aesthetic emotion. Cognition & Emotion17(2), 297-314. doi: 10.1080/02699930302297

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Lipton, B. (2011). The Biology of Belief. Carlsbad: Hay House.

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Miller, W., & Thoresen, C. (2003). Spirituality, religion, and health: An emerging research field. American Psychologist58(1), 24-35. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.24

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Pargament, K. (2004). Religious Coping Methods as Predictors of Psychological, Physical and Spiritual Outcomes among Medically Ill Elderly Patients: A Two-year Longitudinal Study. Journal of Health Psychology9(6), 713-730. doi: 10.1177/1359105304045366

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Seeman, T., Dubin, L., & Seeman, M. (2003). Religiosity/spirituality and health: A critical review of the evidence for biological pathways. American Psychologist58(1), 53-63. doi: 10.1037/0003-066X.58.1.53

Sørensen, T, et al. (2011). The relationship between religious attendance and blood pressure: The Hunt Study, Norway. International Journal of Psychiatry in Medicine, 42(1):13-28.

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Vilchinsky, N., & Kravetz, S. (2005). How Are Religious Belief and Behavior Good for You? An Investigation of Mediators Relating Religion to Mental Health in a Sample of Israeli Jewish Students.Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion44(4), 459-471. doi: 10.1111/j.1468-5906.2005.00297.x

Wachholtz, A., & Pargament, K. (2008). Migraines and meditation: Does spirituality matter? Journal of Behavioral Medicine31(4), 351-366. doi: 10.1007/s10865-008-9159-2

Walsh J, Ciarrocchi J, Piedmont R, & Haskins D. (2007). Spiritual transcendence and religious practices in recovery from pathological gambling: Reducing pain or enhancing quality of life? Research in the Social Scientific Study of Religion, 18: 155-175

Westlake, C., & Dracup, K. (2001). Role of Spirituality in Adjustment of Patients with Advanced Heart Failure. Progress in Cardiovascular Nursing16(3), 119-125. doi: 10.1111/j.0889-7204.2001.00592.x

Chapter 22 — The Nature of Bliss

Aftanas, L., Golosheikin, S. (2002). Changes in Cortical Activity in Altered States of Consciousness: The Study of Meditation by High-Resolution EEG. Human Physiology, Volume 29, Number 2, 143-151.

Argyle, M., & Hills, P. (2000). Religious Experiences and Their Relations With Happiness and Personality. International Journal for the Psychology of Religion10(3), 157-172. doi: 10.1207/S15327582IJPR1003_02

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Beauregard, M., Paquette, V. (2006). Neural correlates of a mystical experience in Carmelite nuns. Neuroscience Letters, Volume 405, Issue 3, Pages 186-190.

Beauregard, M., & O'Leary, D. (2007). The spiritual brain: A neuroscientist's case for the existence of the soul. New York: HarperOne.

Brett, C. (2002). Psychotic and Mystical States of Being: Connections and Distinctions. Philosophy, Psychiatry, & Psychology9(4), 321-341. doi: 10.1353/ppp.2003.0053

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Cahn, B., Delorme, A., & Polich, J. (2010). Occipital gamma activation during Vipassana meditation. Cognitive Processing11(1), 39-56. doi: 10.1007/s10339-009-0352-1

Caird, D. (1987). Religiosity and personality: are mystics introverted, neurotic, or psychotic? British Journal of Social Psychology, 26 (4):345-6.

Farb, N. (2007). Attending to the present: mindfulness meditation reveals distinct neural modes of self-reference. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience Advance, doi:10.1093/scan/nsm030

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Istratov, E., Lyubimov, N., & Orlova, T. (1996). Dynamic characteristics of modified consciousness during and after transcendental meditation. Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine121(2), 117-119. doi: 10.1007/BF02446612

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Lutz, A. (2004). Long-term meditators self-induce high-amplitude gamma synchrony during mental practice. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences101(46), 16369-16373. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0407401101

McPeake, J., Kennedy, B., & Gordon, S. (1991). Altered states of consciousness therapy. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment8(1-2), 75-82. doi: 10.1016/0740-5472(91)90030-E

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Raffone, A., & Srinivasan, N. (2010). The exploration of meditation in the neuroscience of attention and consciousness. Cognitive Processing11(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1007/s10339-009-0354-z

Smith, A., Tart, C. (1998). Cosmic consciousness experience and psychedelic experiences: a first person comparison. Journal of Consciousness Studies, Volume 5, Number 1, pp. 97-107(11)

Stanghellini, G. (2005). Schizophrenic Consciousness, Spiritual Experience, and the Borders Between Things, Images and Words. Transcultural Psychiatry42(4), 611-629. doi: 10.1177/1363461505058919

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Vaitl, D., et al. (2005). Psychobiology of Altered States of Consciousness. Psychological Bulletin131(1), 98-127. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.1.98

Chapter 23 — Discovering the Bliss Within

Brefczynski-Lewis, J., et al. (2007). Neural correlates of attentional expertise in long-term meditation practitioners. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences104(27), 11483-11488. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0606552104

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Cahn, B., & Polich, J. (2006). Meditation states and traits: EEG, ERP, and neuroimaging studies. Psychological Bulletin132(2), 180-211. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.132.2.180

Carter, O., et al. (2005). Meditation alters perceptual rivalry in Tibetan Buddhist monks. Current Biology15(11), R412-R413. doi: 10.1016/j.cub.2005.05.043

Davidson, R.  (2003). Alterations in Brain and Immune Function Produced by Mindfulness Meditation. Psychosomatic Medicine65(4), 564-570. doi: 10.1097/01.PSY.0000077505.67574.E3

Dusek, J. (2006). Association between oxygen consumption and nitric oxide production during the relaxation response. Medical Science Monitor, 12(1): CR1-10

Hebert, R., & Lehmann, D. (1977). Theta bursts: An EEG pattern in normal subjects practicing the transcendental meditation technique. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology42(3), 397-405. doi: 10.1016/0013-4694(77)90176-6

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Hölzel, B., et al. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Research: Neuroimaging,191 (1): 36 DOI: 10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006

Kerr, K., et al. (2011). Effects of mindfulness meditation training on anticipatory alpha modulation in primary somatosensory cortex. Brain Bulletin, retrieved online, doi:10.1016/j.brainresbull.2011.03.026.

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Lagopoulos, J., et al. (2009). Increased Theta and Alpha EEG Activity During Nondirective Meditation. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine,15 (11): 1187 DOI: 10.1089/acm.2009.0113

Lazar, S., et al. (2000). Functional brain mapping of the relaxation response and meditation. NeuroReport, Vol 11(7), 1581-1585.

Lazar, S., et al. (2005). Meditation experience is associated with increased cortical thickness. NeuroReport16(17), 1893-1897. doi: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000186598.66243.19

Luders, E., et al.(2009). The underlying anatomical correlates of long-term meditation: Larger hippocampal and frontal volumes of gray matter. NeuroImage45(3), 672-678. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2008.12.061

Luders, E., et al. (2011). Enhanced brain connectivity in long-term meditation practitioners.

NeuroImage, DOI: 10.1016/j.neuroimage.2011.05.075

Lutz, A., Dunne, J., & Davidson, R. (2007). Meditation and the Neuroscience of consciousness. In P. Zelazo (Ed.), The Cambridge Handbook of Consciousness (pp. 499-554). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Lutz, A., et al. (2009). Mental Training Enhances Attentional Stability: Neural and Behavioral Evidence. Journal of Neuroscience29(42), 13418-13427. doi: 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1614-09.2009

Meissner, J., Pirot, M. (1983). UNBIASING THE BRAIN: THE EFFECTS OF MEDITATION UPON THE CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES. Social Behavior and Personality, Volume 11, Number 1, pp. 65-76(12)

Newberg A, Pourdehnad, M, Alavi A, d'Aquili, E. (2003). Cerebral blood flow during meditative prayer: preliminary findings and methodological issues. Perceptual Motor Skills, 97(2):625-30.

Raffone, A., & Srinivasan, N. (2010). The exploration of meditation in the neuroscience of attention and consciousness. Cognitive Processing11(1), 1-7. doi: 10.1007/s10339-009-0354-z

Slagter, H., et al. (2007) Mental training affects distribution of limited brain resources. PLoS Biol 5(6): e138. doi:10. 1371/journal.pbio.0050138

Slagter, H., et al. (2009). Theta Phase Synchrony and Conscious Target Perception: Impact of Intensive Mental Training. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience21(8), 1536-1549. doi: 10.1162/jocn.2009.21125

Chapter 24 — The Power of Bliss

Anderson, J., Liu, C., & Kryscio, R. (2008). Blood Pressure Response to Transcendental Meditation: A Meta-analysis. American Journal of Hypertension21(3), 310-316. doi: 10.1038/ajh.2007.65

Arias, A., Steinberg, K., Banga, A., & Trestman, R. (2006). Systematic Review of the Efficacy of Meditation Techniques as Treatments for Medical Illness. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine12(8), 817-832. doi: 10.1089/acm.2006.12.817

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Benson, H., & Proctor, W. (2011). Relaxation Revolution: The Science and Genetics of Mind Body Healing. New York: Scribner.

Brown, C., Jones, A. (2010). Meditation experience predicts less negative appraisal of pain: Electrophysiological evidence for the involvement of anticipatory neural responses. Pain, DOI: 10.1016/j.pain.2010.04.017

Brown, R., & Gerbarg, P. (2002). Yogic Breathing and Meditation: When the Thalamus Quiets the Cortex and Rouses the Limbic System. Proceedings of the Science of Breath International (pp. 11-19).

Chiesa, A., & Serretti, A. (2009). Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction for Stress Management in Healthy People: A Review and Meta-Analysis. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine15(5), 593-600. doi: 10.1089/acm.2008.0495

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MacLean, K., et al. (2009). Intensive Meditation Training Improves Perceptual Discrimination and Sustained Attention. Psychological Science, vol. 21 no. 6 829-839.

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Matchim, Y., Armer, J., Stewart, B. (2011). Effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on Health Among Breast Cancer Survivors. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 33: 996-1016.

McCraty, R., Atkinson, M., & Tomasino, D. (2003). Impact of a Workplace Stress Reduction Program on Blood Pressure and Emotional Health in Hypertensive Employees. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine9(3), 355-369. doi: 10.1089/107555303765551589

McGee, M. (2008). Meditation and Psychiatry. Psychiatry, 5(1): 28–41.

Murphy, M., Donovan, S., & Taylor, E. (1997). The physical and psychological effects of meditation: A review of contemporary research with a comprehensive bibliography, 1931-1996. Sausalito, CA: Institute of Noetic Sciences.

Newberg, A. B., & Waldman, M. R. (2009). How God changes your brain: Breakthrough findings from a leading neuroscientist. New York: Ballantine Books.

Orme-Johnson, D. (2006). Evidence that the Transcendental Meditation program prevents or decreases diseases of the nervous system and is specifically beneficial for epilepsy. Medical Hypotheses,67(2), 240-246. doi: 10.1016/j.mehy.2006.03.034

Ospina M, et al. (2007). Meditation Practices for Health: State of the Research. Evidence Report/Technology Assessment No. 155. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services-- Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, Publication No. 07-E010.

Ott, M. (2006). Mindfulness Meditation for Oncology Patients: A Discussion and Critical Review. Integrative Cancer Therapies5(2), 98-108. doi: 10.1177/1534735406288083

Paul-Labrador, M., et al. (2006). Effects of a Randomized Controlled Trial of Transcendental Meditation on Components of the Metabolic Syndrome in Subjects With Coronary Heart Disease. Archives of Internal Medicine, 166:1218-1224.

Praissman, S. (2008). Mindfulness-based stress reduction: a literature review and clinician's guide. Journal of the American Academy of Nurse Practitioners, 20(4):212-6.

Pruitt, I. T., & McCollum, E. E. (2010). Voices of Experienced Meditators: The Impact of Meditation Practice on Intimate Relationships. Contemporary Family Therapy32(2), 135-154. doi: 10.1007/s10591-009-9112-8

Ramel, W., Goldin, P., Carmona, P., & McQuaid, J. (2004). The Effects of Mindfulness Meditation on Cognitive Processes and Affect in Patients with Past Depression. Cognitive Therapy and Research,28(4), 433-455. doi: 10.1023/B:COTR.0000045557.15923.96

Reiner, P. (2009, May 26). Meditation on demand. Scientific American. Retrieved from

Shapiro, S., Schwartz, G., & Santerre, C. (2005). Meditation and positive psychology. In C. R. Snyder & S. J. Lopez (Authors), Handbook of positive psychology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Smith, W, Compton, W, West, W. (1995). Meditation as an adjunct to a happiness enhancement program. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51(2):269-73.

Tang, Y, et al. (2007). Short-term meditation training improves attention and self-regulation. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol. 104 no. 43 17152-17156.

Urry, H., et al. (2004). Neural Correlates of Well-Being. Psychological Science, Volume 15—Number 6, 367-372.

Williams, J., et al. (2008). Mindfulness-based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) in bipolar disorder: Preliminary evaluation of immediate effects on between-episode functioning. Journal of Affective Disorders,107(1-3), 275-279. doi: 10.1016/j.jad.2007.08.022

Wootton, J. (2008). Meditation and Chronic Pain. Contemporary Pain Medicine, III, 195-209, DOI: 10.1007/978-1-59745-344-8_9

Zindel, Z., et al. (2010). Antidepressant Monotherapy vs Sequential Pharmacotherapy and Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, or Placebo, for Relapse Prophylaxis in Recurrent Depression. Archives of General Psychiatry, 67(12):1256-1264.

Chapter 25 — The Presence of Bliss

Ashley-Farrand, T. (2006). Chakra mantras: Liberate your spiritual genius through chanting. York Beach, ME: Red Wheel/Weiser.

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Gurjar, A., Ladhake, S. (2008). Time-Frequency Analysis of Chanting Sanskrit Divine Sound “OM” Mantra. IJCSNS, Vol.8, No.8.

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Khalsa, D., et al. (2009). Cerebral blood flow changes during chanting meditation. Nuclear Medicine Communications30(12), 956-961. doi: 10.1097/MNM.0b013e32832fa26c

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Perry, W. (2007). Sound medicine: The complete guide to healing with the human voice. Franklin Lakes, NJ: New Page Books.

Sao, H. (2005). Physiological and Behavioral Responses of Human Subjects following Japa, Yagya and Selected Yogic exercises, AWGP. Retrieved online from

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Chapter 26 — Freedom in Bliss

Carlezon, W., Wise, R. (2003). Unmet expectations: The brain minds. Nature Medicine, 9, 15 – 16.

Couppis, M. H., & Kennedy, C. H. (2008). The rewarding effect of aggression is reduced by nucleus accumbens dopamine receptor antagonism in mice. Psychopharmacology197(3), 449-456. doi: 10.1007/s00213-007-1054-y

Kavanagh, D., Andrade, J., May, J. (2005) Imaginary relish and exquisite torture: the elaborated intrusion theory of desire. Psychological Review, 112(2), pp. 446-467.

Kavanagh, D., Andrade, J., May, J. (2009). Conscious and unconscious processes in human desire. Psyche, 15(2). pp. 83-91.

Kawabata H., Zeki, S. (2008). The Neural Correlates of Desire. PLoS ONE, 3(8): e3027. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0003027

Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (2008). Addiction and the Brain Antireward System. Annual Review of Psychology59(1), 29-53. doi: 10.1146/annurev.psych.59.103006.093548

Leknes, S., Tracey, I. (2008). A common neurobiology for pain and pleasure. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 9, 314-320.

Nestler, E. (2001). Molecular basis of long-term plasticity underlying addiction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 2, 119-128.

Nestler, E. (2005). Is there a common molecular pathway for addiction? Nature Neuroscience8(11), 1445-1449. doi: 10.1038/nn1578

Previc, F. H. (2009). The dopaminergic mind in human evolution and history. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Reynolds, S., Berridge, K. (2008). Emotional environments retune the valence of appetitive versus fearful functions in nucleus accumbens. Nature Neuroscience 11, 423 – 425.

Tamminga, C. A. (2006). Pathological Gambling: Focusing on the Addiction, Not the Activity. American Journal of Psychiatry163(2), 180-181. doi: 10.1176/appi.ajp.163.2.180

Volkow, N. D., & Li, T. (2004). Science and Society: Drug addiction: The neurobiology of behaviour gone awry. Nature Reviews Neuroscience5(12), 963-970. doi: 10.1038/nrn1539

Chapter 27 — Planetary Consequences

Batson, C., et al. (1983). Influence of self-reported distress and empathy on egoistic versus altruistic motivation to help. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(3), 706-718. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.45.3.706

Bleick, C., & Abrams, A. (1987). The transcendental meditation program and criminal recidivism in California. Journal of Criminal Justice15(3), 211-230. doi: 10.1016/0047-2352(87)90045-6

Caprara, G., et al. (2000). Prosocial Foundations of Children's Academic Achievement. Psychological Science, 11(4), 302-306. doi: 10.1111/1467-9280.00260

Christakis, N., & Fowler, J. (2011). Connected: The surprising power of our social networks and how they shape our lives : How your friends' friends' friends affect everything you feel, think, and do. New York: Back Bay Books.

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Dillbeck, M. (1990). Test of a field theory of consciousness and social change: Time series analysis of participation in the TM-Sidhi program and reduction of violent death in the U.S. Social Indicators Research, 22(4), 399-418. doi: 10.1007/BF00303834

Doherty, R. (1997). The Emotional Contagion Scale: A Measure of Individual Differences. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 21(2), 131-154.

Duhachek, A., Zhang, S., & Krishnan, S. (2007). Anticipated Group Interaction: Coping with Valence Asymmetries in Attitude Shift. Journal of Consumer Research, 34(3), 395-405. doi: 10.1086/518543

Fredrickson, B. (1998). What good are positive emotions? Review of General Psychology, 2(3), 300-319. doi: 10.1037/1089-2680.2.3.300

Fredrickson, B. (2003). The value of positive emotions. American Scientist, 91, 330-335.

Fredrickson, B., Tugade, M., Waugh, C., & Larkin, G. (2003). What good are positive emotions in crisis? A prospective study of resilience and emotions following the terrorist attacks on the United States on September 11th, 2001. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(2), 365-376. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.84.2.365

Fowler, J., & Christakis, N. (2008). Dynamic spread of happiness in a large social network: Longitudinal analysis over 20 years in the Framingham Heart Study. BMJ, 337(Dec04 2), A2338-A2338. doi: 10.1136/bmj.a2338

George, J. (1991). State or trait: Effects of positive mood on prosocial behaviors at work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 76(2), 299-307. doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.76.2.299

George, J., & Brief, A. (1992). Feeling good-doing good: A conceptual analysis of the mood at work-organizational spontaneity relationship. Psychological Bulletin, 112(2), 310-329. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.112.2.310

Hagelin, J., et al. (1999). Effects of Group Practice of the Transcendental Meditation Program on Preventing Violent Crime in Washington, D.C.: Results of the National Demonstration Project. Social Indicators Research, Volume 47, Issue 2.

Hatchard, G., et al. (1996). Time Series Analysis of a Phase Transition to Reduced Crime in Merseyside Metropolitan Area. Psychology, Crime & Law, Volume:2 Issue:3,165-174.

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Isen, A., Daubman, K., & Nowicki, G. (1987). Positive affect facilitates creative problem solving. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1122-1131. doi: 10.1037/0022-3514.52.6.1122

James, H., Chymis, A. (2004). Are Happy People Ethical People? Evidence from North America and Europe. University of Missouri Agricultural Economics, Working Paper No. AEWP 2004-8. Retrieved from:

Johnson, K., Fredrickson, B. (2005). "We All Look the Same to Me". Positive Emotions Eliminate the Own-Race Bias in Face Recognition. Psychological Science, 16(11), 875-881. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9280.2005.01631.x

Lishner, D., Cooter, A., Zald, D. (2008). Rapid Emotional Contagion and Expressive Congruence Under Strong Test Conditions. Journal of Nonverbal Behavior, 32(4), 225-239.

Ludwig, T, Buchholz C, Clarke S. (2005). Using social marketing to increase the use of helmets among bicyclists. Journal of American College Health, 54(1):51-8.

Lyubomirsky, S., King, L., & Diener, E. (2005). The Benefits of Frequent Positive Affect: Does Happiness Lead to Success? Psychological Bulletin, 131(6), 803-855. doi: 10.1037/0033-2909.131.6.803

McCarthy, B., Casey, T. (2011). Get Happy! Positive Emotion, Depression and Juvenile Crime. American Sociological Association Annual Meeting. Las Vegas, NV. Retrieved online from:

Mikulincer, M., & Shaver, P. (2005). Attachment Security, Compassion, and Altruism. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 14(1), 34-38. doi: 10.1111/j.0963-7214.2005.00330.x

Orme-Johnson, D. (2003). Preventing Crime Through the Maharishi Effect. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, Vol. 36, 1-4, 257-281.

Orme-Johnson, D., Dillbeck, M., & Alexander, C. (2003). Preventing Terrorism and International Conflict. Journal of Offender Rehabilitation, 36(1-4), 283-302. doi: 10.1300/J076v36n01_13

Sekerka, L. & Fredrickson, B. (2008). Establishing positive emotional climates to advance organizational transformation. In N. Ashkanasy & C. Cooper (Eds). Research Companion to Emotion in Organizations (pp. 531-545), Northampton, MA: Edward Elgar Publishing.

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